Increasingly values sports and physical activity as a means of maintaining and increasing health. Physical activity is one of the most effective ways to prevent civilizational diseases, such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes. Poles-little physically active society. The results of the research conducted in the framework of the international research project showed differences between the inhabitants of Western Europe and the Poles, Russians and Hungarians. The differences related to health status, lifestyle, level of so-called risk factors and life expectancy. A negligible percentage of adult women and men in Poland (3%-10%) show a satisfactory level of physical activity. More than 90% of respondents lead a typically “sedentary” lifestyle, performing physical exercises only occasionally. A harmful phenomenon, which is low physical fitness affects the level of health, and has a social and economic connotation.
It is proved that physical activity, especially in middle-aged and elderly people, prolongs their lives, prevents premature death and serious diseases. The protective effect of physical activity is comparable to the effect of avoiding Smoking cigarettes.
reduce blood pressure (especially in people with borderline hypertension), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, protect against osteoporosis, increase the amount of bone mass,reduce body fat, affect the growth of HDL cholesterol (so-called “good cholesterol”), reducing the plasma content of small dense LDL (so-called “bad cholesterol”), improve glucose tolerance, increase tissue sensitivity to insulin (reduce the risk of diabetes), they make you feel better.
Heart disease and stroke
Regular exercise is a method of prevention, and one of the elements of treatment of coronary artery disease (coronary heart disease). People who lead an active lifestyle and regularly play physical exercises have half the risk of developing heart disease. Also obese who are more active are in a group of individuals with less risk of repayment for heart disease and diabetes compared to people who are struggling with obesity and do not work. Exercises lead to improved heart performance, lower cholesterol, lower blood pressure and improve blood flow through the organs.
Physical stress prevents hypertension, while in people with hypertension reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure. To lower blood pressure also contributes to the reduction of elevated cholesterol levels.
Type 2 diabetes
Lack of exercise, low physical activity can be risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The risk of developing diabetes in very active people is reduced by 33-50%. However, in people with diabetes, regular physical activity contributes to the proper control of the concentration of sugar in the blood. Physical activity increases the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, thereby reducing the need for insulin. In addition, it facilitates weight loss, which contributes to the control of blood sugar
Studies have shown that reduced physical activity is one of the main causes of the obesity epidemic in humans. There are many studies that strongly suggest that it is better to prevent obesity by choosing an active lifestyle and exercise. Properly selected physical exercises along with diet are the basis of therapy.
Back pain and joint diseases
Regularly performed exercises lead to the strengthening of muscles, tendons, ligaments and bone density. Exercises such as running, roller skating, or dancing increase bone density in adolescents, help maintain bone density in adults, and slow bone loss in older adults. Regular exercise strengthens the muscles of the back and spine, contribute to the maintenance of better posture. Correctly selected exercises (!), preferably in relief of joints (such as swimming), easy tone. Even a slight loss of 5-10 kg of excess body weight helps to reduce pain in the hip and knee joints.
Osteoporosis Exercise strengthens bones and prevents osteoporosis. Infections Physical activity enhances the immune system.
Studies confirm that exercise and physical activity improve our well-being. It has been shown that high physical activity has a positive effect on the proper functioning of the mind (i.e.: decision making, planning, short-term memory), reduces anxiety, improves sleep quality, even in the body under the influence of stress. Regular exercise can reduce the risk of depression in the elderly.
In connection with the change of civilization and social has changed the consumption of energy associated with existence, for example: hand-wash in the washing machine, to dig coal pickaxe and mining it with a miner. Examples can be multiplied. Most people rate their physical activity higher than it actually is. For women, the most frequent overestimation of physical activity follows from Scorpios to her housework. Home work, although it does cause fatigue, is not associated with a large consumption of energy. Interesting how burns energy while home working – Table. 1.
Another mistake is associated with too optimistic approach to physical activity. Patients do not understand how much and intensity of training is responsible for burning, for example, a donut. The average bun has about 330 kcal. To achieve such power consumption need, for example, about 70 minutes of fast walking, a bottle of Coca Cola (0.33 l) 139 kcal is a 30 minute walk or 14 minutes to climb the stairs.
Previously, I performed only 20 minutes, daily, vigorous exercise. Over the past twenty years, scientists have realized that this level of activity due to the intensity and load is not possible to take most people. The new recommendations apply moderate intensity workouts. A number of advantages bring, for example, energetic, fast thirty-minute March every day or most days of the week. For those who do not like or will not be able to plan a workout there is another suggestion. They should reduce the time spent in a sitting position. You can apply simple changes in the performance of daily activities, for example, to abandon the Elevator and climb the stairs, instead of riding a bus or car, you can overcome the distance in two or three bus stops on foot. Do not increase it so quickly and effectively physical culture-exercise, but also will achieve health consequences.
Care should be taken to ensure that obese people achieve the right choice of type of physical activity and, thus, do not risk damage to the joints with very grueling training. For example, swimming and Cycling are not disciplines that require a heavy load on the joints and can be a great choice for people who are overweight.
The intensity of the exercises should always take into account the condition, age and the presence of various types of diseases. To determine how intensively you can train, it is necessary to study the heart rate (heart rate per minute is measured on the radial artery). It should not be too fast, too slow or too short. The maximum heart rate (pulse) for a healthy person depends on the age and calculate it according to the formula: